C# Get specific component of gameobject

I have multiple WheelJoint2D components on a gameobject. How would I go about removing a specific one of those WheelJoint2Ds?

Unless you maintain a reference to each component such as:

public class MyComponent : MonoBehaviour{
    public WheelJoint2D WheelJointOne; //You can set this from the inspector
    public WheelJoint2D WheelJointTwo; //You can set this from the inspector

The best you can do is get all instances of that component and then filter the results based on known properties:

public void SomeFunction(){
    WheelJoint2D[] wheels = GetComponents<WheelJoint2D>();

    foreach (WheelJoint2D w in wheels){
        //Find the joint that matches some parameters, then you can delete it.

The filtering method is not ideal because it can be pretty hard to differentiate between two instances of a component some times, but it is possible in some cases. Assigning references within the inspector using public variables is really the easiest way to get things right.