Confining a fast moving object

So let’s say we are making pong.

With each collision against a wall, the ball moves faster. Eventually, the ball moves further per frame than the physics can keep up with and will move such a magnitude that the ball will be drawn into a wall or outside the confines of the play area.

Is there an established way to confine the ball within the play area or a way to calculate physics predictions faster than the rendering and use the physics prediction to…I guess I could draw a ray cast in the direction of the ball movement the size of the cast being the current magnitude of the ball and if it is found to be outside the intervals of the play area handle what would be a physics error in the next update.

If I were to do that what might be a way to resolve the error without slowing down the ball?