How to achive the same look? Which shaders to use?

Does anyone can suggest how could I achieve such look:

What I have now is the same textures and bumpmaps but completely different results:

So the question is how to achieve the same result? Is it shaders? Do I need to write my own trying to achieve the same result? Maybe I can try some existing ones? How to achieve such areas “glowing”? How can I achieve such glowing on the planets edge?

For the surrounding atmosphere, use what you got. Then blend in some rim to the plane shader to add the “inner atmosphere” look. There are examples for rim shaders on unity docs.

you could have a look at the post processing stack and play with the values a bit. not sure this will have 100% the same look (some custom shader might be required for that) but it might be a start.