How to save prefabs with private data through inheritance

I have a 2 class inheritance chain, Builing - House. I want to create a house with values set from the classes but they can’t be public, which means I can not edit them in the inspector. So my questions is, how do I set private values so I can use my inheritance tree properly?

Extra info:
If I make another class, say SmallHouse, as a child of House then I can not add the SmallHouse script to a list of Houses which is important. It is actually why I need so hard code this information somewhere.

The protected modifier makes a field visible for a class and its derived classes only, is it what want ?