Is there a way for me to get an object's Transform Values through a camera?

If an object is seen, then I could get that object’s X, Y, and Z values because it was seen.

You can perform a Raycast from the camera into the scene and check if the ray hits a collider, which would return the GameObject and Transform. See this tutorial about raycasting.

Additionally, you can check on each script, if an object is currently visible by any camera (this included the editor scene view camera!) via the MonoBehaviour.OnBecameVisible message.

Other than that it’s not directly possible to retrieve a Transform through the camera. The Unity camera does not track a list of currently seen objects or anything you could access. If you wanted to do other kinds of visibility checks you could keep track of all objects yourself and perform tests if it’s currently in view, but I think this goes beyond your use-case. Or, tell us more about what you are trying to implement, maybe there’s a common solution.