Physics in Unity and Colliders

If I have an object that has a collider and it’s position is (0,0,0). And I have another object whose position is (0,1,0), and each object has a scale of (1,1,1), will the two objects technically be “touching”?

No. See the Physics settings: there is a penetration amount, and it must be > 0.

Of course, you are free to make your collider slightly larger than your visual mesh, if the penetration is a problem.