Using Advertisement crashes with Android build with IL2CPP on Unity 5.5.0f3

Using Unity 5.5.0f3 it’s not possible to build a project with the Unity Ads Service with IL2CPP on Android.

Create a new project, enable Unity Ads Service. Attack the Simple code sample script to the camera on the default scene. Save and select IL2CPP as Scripting backend on player settings.
Try to build… and you’ll get an:
Exception: C:\Program Files\Unity\Editor\Data\il2cpp/build/il2cpp.exe did not run properly!

It also fails to build on Cloud Build.

5495: [Unity] Exception: /UNITY_PATH/Unity/Unity-5_5_0f3/ did not run properly!
5496: [Unity]   at UnityEditor.Android.PostProcessor.Tasks.RunIl2Cpp.Execute (UnityEditor.Android.PostProcessor.PostProcessorContext context) [0x00000] in <filename unknown>:0 
5497: [Unity]   at UnityEditor.Android.PostProcessor.PostProcessRunner.RunAllTasks (UnityEditor.Android.PostProcessor.PostProcessorContext context) [0x00000] in <filename unknown>:0 
5498: [Unity]   at UnityEditor.Android.PostProcessAndroidPlayer.PostProcess (BuildTarget target, System.String stagingAreaData, System.String stagingArea, System.String playerPackage, System.String installPath, System.String companyName, System.String productName, BuildOptions options, UnityEditor.RuntimeClassRegistry usedClassRegistry) [0x00000] in <filename unknown>:0 
5499: [Unity]   at UnityEditor.Android.AndroidBuildPostprocessor.PostProcess (BuildPostProcessArgs args) [0x00000] in <filename unknown>:0 
5500: [Unity] UnityEditor.BuildPipeline:BuildPlayerInternalNoCheck(String[], String, String, BuildTarget, BuildOptions, Boolean)
5501: [Unity] UnityEditor.CloudBuild.Builder:Build()

It turns out this is a bug in 5.5. As a work around though, you may want to use the Asset Store Unity Ads integration, since it does not suffer from this bug. you can find instructions about how to do that there:

But instead of disabling the service, the service should be left enabled and the extension should be disabled under the Advanced section of Ads in the Services window. This way the Ads service flag remains enabled, and the extension won’t conflict with the asset package.