What is the full process that the camera goes through in rendering?

I would like to know what is the specific path that the camera goes through and how to pull information out of it. For example; what does the camera record the image on (game camera not webcam)? Does it save it in a byte array, a color, a rendertexure? what is the object called (its variable name) so that I can access it in script? How do you convert it into other types (like taking all the pixels colors and coordinate information and separating them into their own variables)? Thank you.

Not sure if this will relate but there is the Scriptable Render Pipeline introduced in the 2018.1 Beta. That might provide more indepth answers about the render process.