What is this effect called, underwater distortion?

I'm trying to find a modern version of this effect. It was a shader back from Unity 4 that created an underwater effect. I've been searching and searching and can't find anything similar and want to make sure I have my search term correct. If I was to try to search for how to do it with visual effect graph or shader graph what's the term I need to be looking for?


something like water refraction

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You wouldn't get a wobbling refraction in an aquarium, though. The wobble effect happens because of waves but there are no waves between the glass and the water. You do get refraction but it's constant.

As you can see here, the wobble effect only happens at the surface.


I used this for a refraction shader in the URP: https://www.codinblack.com/glass-shader-using-shader-graph-in-unity3d/

If it is behind glass and uses render texture or buffer, simply scroll a normal map on the glass, like a heat shimmer. This is done by mixing the normal map with UVs.

Alternatively, in the base vertex shader for underwater things, apply some form of consine math to add to the vertex position before output.

It doesn't have an official name on account of it being done in mostly 2 ways: distorting texture coordinates or distorting vertex positions. Simple to understand though, and easy to get help with.